Coronary artery disease

  1. DiaPat® KardiOM Test: Detecting arteriosclerosis as early as possible!
  2. Coronary artery disease: What should I know?
  3. Risk factors for coronary artery disease
  4. Investigations to diagnose coronary artery disease
  5. Advantages and benefits of the DiaPat® KardiOM test
  6. What physicians say about the DiaPat® KardiOM test
  7. Sampling for the DiaPat® KardiOM test
  8. Validation of the DiaPat® KardiOM test
  9. Studies and publications
  10. Projects

DiaPat® KardiOM Test: Detecting arteriosclerosis as early as possible!

The DiaPat® KardiOM test is a urine test for the early detection of an increased risk of a heart attack due to calcification of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). Before the first clinical symptoms, the DiaPat® KardiOM test reliably detects even the smallest, not yet visible plaque deposits by analyzing 238 disease-specific proteins. For the detection of plaques at this early stage, the test is currently the only diagnostic available.

The timely diagnosis can decisively improve the success of therapy, so that heart attacks and strokes can be avoided. The DiaPat® KardiOM test is clinically validated and is a valuable method for early detection. In addition to diagnostics, it also enables therapy monitoring.

Coronary artery disease: What should I know?

Coronary artery disease is caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries, which surround the heart and supply the heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood and nutrients. The narrowing is caused by vascular calcification or plaques, which is also known as atherosclerosis. Blood fats and proteins become deposited in the wall of the blood vessels and trigger inflammation. As a result, these foci of inflammation become enclosed in a kind of scarring of calcium and connective tissue. The artery becomes narrower and narrower and the blood flow is reduced. If an acute vascular occlusion occurs due to the rupture of such a plaque, this leads to a heart attack or stroke. The goal in the treatment of coronary artery disease is to widen the narrowed blood vessels in order to improve blood flow in the long term. Heart attacks and strokes are among the most frequent causes of death in Europe. The risk of disease is strongly influenced by lifestyle habits. A change in lifestyle can have a positive effect on this.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease

  • high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • smoking
  • physical inactivity
  • obesity
  • diabetes mellitus
  • stress
  • genetic predisposition

Investigations to diagnose coronary artery disease

The following examination methods are used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease:

ECG (electrocardiography, electrocardiogram)

The activities of the heart are documented as part of electrocardiography. With the help of electrodes that are attached to the arms, legs, and chest, the impulses are passed on and recorded in the form of curves (electrocardiogram). The records provide the doctor with important information about the functioning of the heart. A distinction is made between resting ECG, stress ECG, and long-term ECG.

Ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiogram)

The ultrasound examination of the heart is carried out with an ultrasound probe through the chest wall and enables the heart to be assessed. The examination is painless and risk-free for the patient.

Cardiac catheterization (Coronary Angiography)

Cardiac catheterization is an invasive examination method for assessing coronary arteries. Narrowing and vascular deposits (arteriosclerosis) can be made visible in this way. Through an access point in the groin, a millimeter-thin tube (catheter) is pushed through the aorta to the heart. The contrast medium is then administered via the catheter so that the coronary vessels can be precisely assessed in the X-ray image. Therapeutic measures are also possible directly afterward. The vessel constriction can be expanded with the help of a balloon and then fixed with vascular support, a so-called stent. The possibilities of bypass surgery can also be assessed during the catheter examination. Bypass surgery is an alternative therapy for particular severe narrowing. In this case, the narrowed area is bypassed. In most cases, a vein from the leg is used for this purpose.

Advantages and benefits of the DiaPat® KardiOM test

By means of the DiaPat® KardiOM test, arteriosclerosis can be detected at such an early stage that the risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke can be sustainably reduced with appropriate therapy. Depending on the stage of the disease, the plaque deposits can be stabilized or even reduced by the therapy.

The DiaPat® KardiOM test is based on proteome analysis in urine and is a risk-free and very reliable examination method.

What physicians say about the DiaPat® KardiOM test

Professor Dr. Anna Dominiczak, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences at the University of Glasgow

"The unique diagnostic approach of proteome analysis enables the early identification of vascular deposits before clinical symptoms appear."


Professor Dr. Karlheinz Peter, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne

"The progression of the disease can be prevented at an early stage by appropriate therapeutic intervention and a change in lifestyle."

The University Heart Center Freiburg Bad Krozingen also supports the use of the DiaPat® KardiOM test.

Sampling for the DiaPat® KardiOM test

The DiaPat® KardiOM test analyzes the midstream urine. For the test, the central stream of the second-morning urine is collected in a urine cup. The urine is then transferred to the enclosed urine monovette * (sample syringe) and cooled. The urine monovette is put into protective packaging * for transport. The dispatch to the laboratory takes place via overnight express.

* will be provided

Validation of the DiaPat® KardiOM test

The DiaPat® KardiOM test analyzes specific proteins that are released very early from the deposits in the coronary arteries via the blood into the urine. The diagnostic method is very reliable* in assessing the risk of infarction and has been validated in clinical studies.

* sensitivity 79%, specificity 88%.

Studies and publications

Rossing K, Bosselmann HS, Gustafsson F, Zhang ZY, Gu YM, Kuznetsova T, Nkuipou-kenfack E, Mischak H, Staessen JA, Koeck T, Schou M.
Urinary proteomics pilot study for biomarker discovery and diagnosis in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
PloS One. 2016 Jun 16;11(6):e0157167.

Farmakis D, Koeck T, Mullen W, Parissis J, Gogas BD, Nikolaou M, Lekakis J, Mischak H, Filippatos G.
Urine proteome analysis in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction complicated by chronic kidney disease: feasibility, and clinical and pathogenetic correlates.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2016 Jul;18(7):822-9.

Neisius U, Koeck T, Mischak H, Rossi SH, Olson E, Carty DM, Dymott JA, Dominiczak AF, Berry C, Oldroyd KG, Delles C.
Urine proteomics in the diagnosis of stable angina.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2016 Apr 19;16:70.

Zhang ZY, Thijs L, Petit T, Gu YM, Jacobs L, Yang WY, Liu YP, Koeck T, Zürbig P, Jin Y, Verhamme P, Voigt JU, Kuznetsova T, Mischak H, Staessen JA.
Urinary proteome and systolic blood pressure as predictors of 5-Year cardiovascular and cardiac outcomes in a general population.
Hypertension. 2015 Jul;66(1):52-60.

Zhang Z, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Gu Y, Liu Y, Jacobs L, Koeck T, Zürbig P, Mischak H, Kuznetsova T.
Left ventricular diastolic function in relation to the urinary proteome: a proof-of-concept study in a general population.
Int J Cardiol. 2014 Sep;176(1):158-65.

Carty DM, Schiffer E, Delles C.
Proteomics in hypertension.
J Hum Hypertens. 2013 Apr;27(4):211-6. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2012.30. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Kuznetsova T, Mischak H, Mullen W, Staessen JA
Urinary proteome analysis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Eur Heart J. 2012 Sep;33(18):2342-50. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Dawson J, Walters M, Delles C, Mischak H, Mullen W.
Urinary proteomics to support diagnosis of stroke.
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35879. Epub 2012 May 16.

Mullen W, Gonzalez J, Siwy J, Franke J, Sattar N, Mullan A, Roberts S, Delles C, Mischak H, Albalat A.
A Pilot Study on the Effect of Short-Term Consumption of a Polyphenol Rich Drink on Biomarkers of Coronary Artery Disease Defined by Urinary Proteomics.
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Dec 28;59(24):12850-7

Carty DM, Siwy J, Brennand JE, Zürbig P, Mullen W, Franke J, McCulloch JW, North RA, Chappell LC, Mischak H, Poston L, Dominiczak AF, Delles C.
Urinary Proteomics for Prediction of Preeclampsia.
Hypertension. 2011 Mar;57(3):561-9

Delles C, Schiffer E, von zur Muhlen C, Peter K, Rossing P, Parving HH, Dymott JA a, Neisius U, Zimmerli LUa, Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Schmieder RE, Mischak H, Dominiczak AF
Urinary proteomic diagnosis of coronary artery disease: identification and clinical validation in 623 subjects.
J Hypertens. 2010 Nov;28(11):2316-22.

Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Ogden LG, Kinney GL, Hokanson JE, Schiffer E, Mischak H, Rewers M
Evaluation of urinary biomarkers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and diabetic kidney disease.
Diabetes, Technology and Therapeutics 2009, 11(1): 1-9

Muhlen C, Schiffer E, Zuerbig P, Kellmann M, Brasse M, Meert N, Vanholder RC, Dominiczak AF, Chen YC, Mischak H, Bode C, Peter K
Evaluation of Urine Proteome Pattern Analysis for Its Potential To Reflect Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Symptomatic Patients.
Journal of Proteome Research 2009, 8(1): 335-345

Zimmerli LU, Schiffer E, Zurbig P, Good DM, Kellmann M, Mouls L, Pitt AR, Coon JJ, Schmieder RE, Peter K, Mischak H, Kolch W, Delles C, Dominiczak AF
Urinary proteomic biomarkers in coronary artery disease.
Mol Cell Proteomics 2008, 7(2): 290-298

Geppert HG, von zur Mühlen C, Mischak H
Proteomanalyse zur Erkennung und Therapieevaluierung der koronaren Herzkrankheit.
Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007, 3(2): 160-168